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A Review of the Diagnostic Scope of Biomarker Techniques, Genetic Screening and Virtual Scanning

[ Vol. 13 , Issue. 1 ]


Graham Wilfred Ewing   Pages 35 - 45 ( 11 )


The purpose of this article is to compare and evaluate the advantages and benefits of the cognitive screening technique Virtual Scanning with contemporary diagnostic and screening techniques, in particular genetic screening and biomarkers.

In the last 50 years biomarker techniques and more recently genetic screening have been developed to characterise the onset, progression and regression of pathologies. Nevertheless the scientific picture is not yet complete. It does not yet include an understanding of relationship between genotype and phenotype; the regulatory function of the autonomic nervous system; or the rate or level of the expressed protein, protein conformation, the rate at which proteins react, and the reaction conditions such as pH, levels of minerals and cofactors, and temperature. By contrast, Virtual Scanning is based upon the light absorbing and emitting properties of proteins and how this bioluminescence influences colour perception. It provides a measure of the level of expressed protein and the rate at which such expressed protein subsequently reacts with its reactive substrate.

The article highlights the limitations of genetic screening and biomarkers and the perceived advantages which Virtual Scanning may have for routine mass screening e.g. of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancers, depression, migraine, etc.


Autonomic nervous system, biomarker, cognitive colour perception, genetic screening, genotype, mathematical model, phenotype, physiological systems, virtual scanning.


Montague Healthcare, Mulberry House, 6 Vine Farm Close, Cotgrave, Nottingham NG12 3TU, England.

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